De la conception à l’éco-conception des ouvrages maritimes : intégrer la nature au projet d’aménagement maritime

Jean-Claude SOUCHE, Sylvain PIOCH, Marie SALGUES, Klaartje DE WEERDT, Alexandra AGOSTINI, Mahmoud HAYEK

Résumé


L'activité humaine sur le littoral a un impact majeur sur l'environnement et sur la biodiversité sous-marine. La démarche d'éco-conception permet d'intégrer les objectifs environnementaux à la conception structurelle des ouvrages qui sont aptes à remplir leurs fonctions techniques et une fonction environnementale de support de la biodiversité. L'éco-conception des ouvrages est une approche globale et systémique qui est initiée par le client au moment du programme et qui se poursuit lors de la conception puis jusqu'à la phase d'exécution. A la demande de l’Office Environnemental de la Corse, cette méthodologie a été appliquée au projet expérimental de récifs artificiels et de corps morts du Ricantu dans la baie d’Ajaccio. Les ouvrages immergés ont pour but de proposer des habitats destinés aux espèces cibles à forte valeur ajoutée pour la pêche. Cet article décrit la démarche suivie pour éco-concevoir les ouvrages à construire 1) méthodologie suivie, 2) essais préliminaires en laboratoire pour évaluer les paramètres prioritaires, 3) réalisation d’ouvrages à l’échelle 1. La relation écosystème-ouvrage, le design des formes et des matériaux ont été investigués avec des objectifs de bio-mimétisme affirmés. Le suivi scientifique des ouvrages expérimentaux depuis près de 2 ans offre un retour d’expérience concret indispensable à la consolidation de la méthodologie à adopter dans le but de concevoir des ouvrages éco-conçus durables.


Mots-clés


Eco-conception; Infrastructures maritimes; Habitats artificiels; Compensation; Ouvrages biomimétiques.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5150/revue-paralia.2019.n01

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